The most devastating consequence of the Crusades was the:A. new religious and political ethos that informed the reconquest of Iberia.B. development of Islamic and Christian doctrines of holy warC. justification for the massacre and dispossession of the “heretics” of southern France.D. all of these
William the Conqueror was politically innovative in that he:a. claimed England in the name of the Roman papacyb. rewarded his Norman followers with cash payments rather than English land.c. used highly centralized English authority combined with French feudal structures d. negotiated an advantageous peace agreement with King Harold of England
The Qu”rān contains:a. the revelations sent by God to Muhammad.b. Christian teaching about Christ”s divinity.c. excerpts from the Hebrew Torah.d. a detailed plan for the expansion of Islam after Muhammad”s death.
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In terms of organization, the fourth-century Christian Church was:a. based primarily in Jerusalem, the eventual residence of the pope.b. essentially an underground movement, with few organized meetings.c. more hierarchical, with a clergy of patriarchs, bishops, priests, and deacons.d. increasingly organized, with important roles for women, slaves, and Jews.
It is probably best to assume that:a. Jesus was a historical figure about whose life we know a great deal.b. Jesus was real, but Pontius Pilate and Caiaphas were probably literary characters.c. the existence of Jesus cannot be established; it is a matter of faith alone.d. Paul was a companion and disciple of Jesus.
The tetrarchy was the split of Rome into halves and the creation of:a. a single augustus who ruled the wealthy East and a caesar who ruled the West.b. two augustuses who ruled the East and two caesars who ruled the West.c. an augustus in the West and one in the East assisted and succeeded by caesars.d. a single augustus who ruled the troublesome West and a caesar who ruled the East.
Once the Church gained ascendancy in the Empire, relations with non-Christians would be:a. in keeping with the Christian tradition of loving one”s enemy.b. in keeping with the imperial rule of the emperor as pontifex maximus.c. governed by the rulings of Church councils such as that at Nicea.d. in keeping with the stoic ideal of Marcus Aurelius by regarding everyone as equal.