Which of the following epithelial tissue types is NOT correctly matched to its function?>simple squamous epithelium; filtration>simple cuboidal epithelium; secretion>simple columnar epithelium with microvilli; absorption>stratified squamous epithelium; absorption
>Stratified squamous epithelium; absorption. Stratified squamous epithelium (like you would find in the skin) is adapted for protection, not absorption from the external environment.
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Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?>Simple columnar epithelia are associated with absorption and secretion.>Stratified squamous epithelia are found in areas subjected to wear and tear.>Simple cuboidal epithelia are found in areas that stretch.>Simple squamous epithelia are associated with filtration and exchange.
>Simple cuboidal epithelia are found in areas that stretch. Stratified squamous epithelium (like you would find in the skin) is adapted for protection, not absorption from the external environment.
Which tissues have little to no functional regenerative capacity?>cardiac muscle and nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord>epithelial tissue, bones, and areolar connective tissue>nervous tissue and smooth muscle>cardiac and smooth muscle
>Cardiac muscle and nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord.Cardiac muscle and the nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord have virtually no functional regenerative capacity, and they are routinely replaced by scar tissue.
>False. Smooth muscle cells do not contain striations. Although they do contain myofilaments, their arrangement is not regular enough to generate the striations seen in skeletal or cardiac muscle cells.
Which property is most consistent in the majority of connective tissues? > large amounts of ground substance > large number of connective fibers > greater amount of extracellular matrix compared to cellular content > avasculartiy
What do the glands shown in A and B both have in common?>Both are unicellular. >Both are exocrine glands. >Both are endocrine glands. >Both are sebaceous glands.
Why are adipose tissue, blood, and bone all considered to be connective tissues?>They have the same types of cells.>They all have collagen and elastic fibers in their extracellular matrix.>They have a common origin: mesenchyme.>They connect to each other.
>They have a common origin: mesenchyme. All are part of the mesoderm.Adipose tissue, bone, and blood (like all connective tissues) are derived from mesenchyme, an embryonic tissue. Also common to all connective tissues is the presence of cells and an extracellular matrix that consists of fibers bathed in ground substance.
Under a microscope you observe a tissue that appears to have long fibers that appear striated. The nuclei are pushed off to the side of the fibers. The tissue looks very vascular. What type of tissue are you observing?>dense irregular connective tissue>dense regular connective tissue>skeletal muscle tissue>osseous tissue
Skeletal Muscle Tissue. The striations are evidence of the myofilaments inside the muscle fibers. The position of the nuclei and vascularity are also signs of muscle tissue.
You observe a tissue under a microscope. There appears to be a lumen on one side of the tissue. Lining this lumen, the cells seem to have long, fingerlike projections. Beneath the projections, the cells seem to have the shape of shoeboxes and are packed tightly together. What type of tissue are you looking at? >stratified squamous epithelia >simple columnar epithelia >simple cuboidal epithelia >transitional epithelia
>Simple columnar epithelia. The shoebox represents the columnar shape. Additionally, the fingerlike projections are likely to be microvilli.
Which of the following statements is true? >Dense connective tissue includes a great deal of collagen. >Loose connective tissue includes cartilage. >Dense connective tissue includes a large amount of reticular fibers. >All subclasses of loose connective tissue do not contain collagen fibers.
>Dense connective tissue includes a great deal of collagen. Correct, the prominent element of dense connective tissue are the fibers. Dense regular connective tissue primarily has parallel collagen fibers and a few elastic fibers. Dense irregular connective tissue primarily has irregularly arranged collagen fibers and some elastic fibers. Elastic connective tissue contains a high proportion of elastic fibers.
What distinguishes the gland in A from the gland in B?>the use of a duct >the use of epithelial cells to produce products >the method of secretion >the direct secretion of products into the blood
>The method of secretion. The gland in A is secreting in a merocrine manner, while B is secreting in a holocrine manner.
Pseudostratified epithelia are well adapted to the digestive system because the cilia increase the surface area for absorption.>True>False
>False. Pseudostratified epithelia are found in the respiratory linings. Cilia are used for movement, not increasing surface area.
Which is the most atypical connective tissue since it does NOT act as a binding or packaging material under normal conditions or provide structural support? >cartilage >osseous > areolar connective tissue >blood
>Blood. Blood, the fluid connective tissue (CT) within blood vessels, is the most atypical CT. It does not act as a binding or packing material; it does not provide structural support. It is classified as a CT only because it develops from mesenchyme and consists of cells (blood cells) surrounded by an extracellular fluid matrix (blood plasma).
Which of the following substances would NOT be found in significant amounts in the extracellular matrix of the illustrated areolar connective tissue?>elastin >proteoglycan >collagen >keratin
>Keratin. Keratin is a protein typically found in epithelial tissues, notably the cornified layers of the epidermis. Keratin would therefore not be found in significant quantities in the ECM of connective tissues.
You observe a uniform tissue under a microscope. There is no lumen. The material looks densely packed, but you do not observe many nuclei. It appears that there are strands of fibers running in parallel directions. What type of tissue are you looking at? >epithelial tissue >nervous tissue >muscle tissue >connective tissue
>Connective tissue. You are probably looking at dense regular connective tissue. Connective tissue has a low cell count compared to the extracellular matrix.
>Absorption. Absorption, the movement of substances into the body, is a role of epithelial tissue. Roles of connective tissue include binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation of substances, via blood, within the body.
Cutaneous membrane refers to that of the skin. Mucous membranes are specifically involved in the respiratory cavity. Serous membranes include the respiratory/abdominal cavities.
All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structure and function. This property is called polarity.>True>False
>True. All epithelia exhibit polarity, which is defined by the presence of an apical, or free, surface and a basal, or attached, surface that differ in both structure and function.
Which of the following is a dry membrane exposed to the air?>cutaneous membrane>synovial membrane>mucous membrane>serous membrane
>cutaneous membrane. The cutaneous membrane is your skin, an organ consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) firmly attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (dermis). Unlike other epithelial membranes, the cutaneous membrane is exposed to the air and is a dry membrane.
Injured cartilage might heal more quickly if a treatment were discovered that would __________.>prevent chondrocytes from dividing and thereby reducing the relative amount of matrix that is present in the cartilage>stimulate blood vessels to develop within cartilage>stimulate calcification of cartilage>All of the listed responses are correct.
>Stimulate blood vessels to develop within the cartilage. Cartilage is normally avascular, so nutrients required for healing must diffuse from distant blood vessels, which delays the healing process.
How are endocrine and exocrine glands different from each other?>Exocrine glands are only unicellular in structure.>Exocrine glands secrete hormones.>Exocrine glands have specific target organs for their secretions.>Endocrine glands have no ducts.
>Endocrine glands have no ducts. Endocrine glands secrete substances (hormones) into blood without the use of ducts, whereas exocrine glands use ducts to secrete substances into the external environment.
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?>Mucous membranes line exits and entrances to the body.>The cutaneous membrane is a dry membrane exposed to air.>Serous membranes line body cavities and organs.>The cutaneous membrane is made of a simple columnar epithelium
>The cutaneous membrane is made of simple columnar epithelium. The cutaneous membrane, a “dry” membrane exposed to air, consists of a keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium called the epidermis, and an underlying layer of connective tissue called the dermis.
Which event must precede all others during tissue repair?>Clotting occurs in the damaged area.>Inflammation occurs near the affected cells.>Epithelia reproduce and migrate to the damaged area.>Fibroblasts produce collagen that strengthens the area surrounding the tissue damage.
>Inflammation occurs near the affected cells. Inflammation is the first part of the tissue repair. The inflammatory events set the stage for the tissue repair process.
Connective tissues are made of different combinations of ground substance and fibers. As you compare slides of connective tissues, which would most likely be the strongest type of connective tissue based on the composition of ground substance and fibers?>connective tissues high in collagen fibers>connective tissue high in elastic fibers>connective tissue high in reticular fibers>connective tissue high in ground substance
>Connective tissues high in collagen fibers. Collagen is the toughest of the fibers. If you saw collagen in high amounts, that would indicate strength in the connective tissue.
After a heart attack, fibrosis occurs at the site of cardiac muscle cell death. This reduces the efficiency of the heart”s pumping activity because __________.>the undamaged cardiac muscle cells become fatigued from the energy expended during the healing process>fibrous connective tissue is incapable of contracting>fibrosis produces new cardiac muscle cells that are not as strong as the mature ones that died>the initial death of some cardiac muscle cells triggers a chain reaction in which progressively more and more neighboring healthy cells die
>Fibrous connective tissue is incapable of contracting. Cardiac muscle contains sarcomeres, which allow for the tissue to contract when electrically stimulated. Fibrous connective tissue lacks these special contractile units.
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level5th EditionCharlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet