Whereas cosmopolitan conservatives frequently sustained international collaboration and also admired elite society in various other nations, fascists espooffered excessive nationalism and social parochialism. Fascist ideologues taught that nationwide identity was the structure of individual identity and should not be corrupted by international impacts, especially if they were left-wing. Nazism condemned Marxist and also liberal internationalisms as hazards to Gerguy nationwide unity. Fascists in general wanted to rearea internationalist class solidarity with nationalist course teamwork. The Italian, French, and also Spanish concept of integral nationalism was hostile to individualism and political pluralism. Unprefer autonomous conservatives, fascists accoffered their political enemies of being less “patriotic” than they, occasionally even labeling them “traitors.” Portuguese fascists spoke of “internal foreigners” that were “antination.” In the 1930s some French fascist institutions also rejected the label “fascist,” lest they be viewed as beholden to Germany.

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In France, immigrants—especially left-wing immigrants—were one-of-a-kind targets of fascist nationalism. Jean Renaud of French Solidarity demanded that all foreigners seeking residence in France be rigorously screened and also that the unfit be denied enattempt “without pity”—specifically social revolutionaries, who made France “not a refuge for the oppressed yet a depository for trash.” In 1935 La Rocque blamed Hitler for driving Gerguy refugees right into France and also condemned the “foolish sentimentality” that prompted the federal government to accept them. He additionally criticized France’s naturalization plans for allowing cities choose Marseille and also Paris to be inundated by a rising tide of “undesirables.” France, he claimed, had actually become the shepherd of “a swarming, virulent mob of outlaws,” some of whom, under the pretext of fleeing Nazi persecution, were really infiltrating France as spies.


Fascists frequently blamed their countries’ difficulties on scapegoats. Jews, Freemasons, Marxists, and immigrants were significant among the teams that were demonized. According to fascist propaganda, the long depression of the 1930s resulted much less from insufficient federal government regulation of the economic climate or inadequate lower-class purchasing power than from “Judeo-Masonic-bolshevik” conspiracies, left-wing agitation, and also the existence of immigrants. The implication was that depriving these demons of their power and influence would reason the nation’s significant troubles to go ameans.


Fascists praised the Volk and pandered to populist anti-intellectualism. Nazi art criticism, for instance, uporganized the populist watch that the widespread guy was the finest judge of art and also that art that did not appeal to popular taste was decadent. Also populist was the Nazi propaganda design template that Hitler was a “brand-new man” that had actually “emerged from the depth of the human being.” Unprefer left-wing populism, fascist populism did not attribute workers’ hardships to significant business and big landowners and did not advocate actions such as steady taxes, higher pay for commercial and also farm employees, protection of unions, and the right to strike. In basic it spared the wealth of the top classes—other than that belonging to Jews.

Revolutionary image

Fascists periodically depicted their activities as “new” and also “revolutionary,” a photo that appealed not just to the young however to older literary modernists such as Filippo Marinetti, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Wyndham Lewis, William Butler Yeats, D.H. Lawrence, and also Paul de Man. However, dozens of fascist writers additionally praised cultural traditionalism, or “rootedness.” Under the Third Reich, Goebbels subsidized an exhibition of contemporary art not to celebrate its glory but to expose its decadence; he dubbed it ssuggest the “Exhibition of Degeneprice Art.” Fascism’s clintends to newness did not proccasion its propagandists from pandering to fearful traditionalists who linked social modernism with secular humanism, feminism, sexual license, and also the damage of the Christian household.


Fascists likewise pandered to antiurban feelings. The Nazis won a lot of of their electoral support from rural areas and tiny towns. In Nazi propaganda the ideal Germale was not an urban intellectual but a straightforward peasant, and uprooted intellectualism was considered a danger to the deep, irrational sources of the Volk heart. Jews were regularly portrayed—and also therefore condemned—as quintcrucial city dwellers. In 1941 La Rocque commented: “The concept of ‘family members of good stock who have their roots in the earth’ leads us to conclusions not much from Wchange Darre, Minister of Agrisociety for the Reich.” Romanian fascism relied greatly on the assistance of landed peasants that distrusted the “wicked” city. The agrarian wing of Japanese fascism pincreased the peasant soldier and denigrated the industrial worker.

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Sexism and also misogyny


Under fascist regimes woguys were urged to perform their typical sex role as wives and also mothers and to bear many type of kids for the nation. Mussolini instituted plans sevedepend restricting women’s accessibility to tasks external the residence (plans that later had actually to be revised to accomplish wartime exigencies), and he dispersed gold medals to mothers that produced the the majority of children. In Germany the Nazis forbade female party members from offering orders to male members. In a speech in 1937, Charles Vallin, vice president of the French Social Party, equated feminists through insubordinate proletarians: “It is not via course struggle that the social question will be reresolved. Yet, it is toward a type of class struggle, opposing the feminine ‘proletariat’ to the masculine ‘capitalist,’ that feminism is leading us.”

De Jouvenel related womales with hedonism and hedonism via decadence. Europe, he created in 1938, had actually grvery own soft and feminine from pleacertain seeking, ending up being “prefer a woman who had actually simply escaped a frightening accident. essential light, warmth, music.” According to de Jouvenel, an atmosphere of “facility” corrupted whatever, and also civilization had actually become increasingly unwilling to take on painful tasks. In short, he thought the feminization of Europe had been its downfall. In a comparable vein, Drieu La Rochelle asserted that educated woguys undermined his manhood. He identified political movements he disfavored as feminine and those he admired as masculine—fascism, for him, being the a lot of masculine of all.