Define the various kinds of body movementsIdentify the joints that allow for these motions

Synovial joints enable the body a significant array of movements. Each motion at a synovial joint outcomes from the contractivity or relaxation of the muscles that are attached to the bones on either side of the articulation. The kind of activity that deserve to be created at a synovial joint is determined by its structural type. While the ball-and-socket joint offers the greatest range of activity at an individual joint, in other areas of the body, several joints might work together to produce a details movement. Overall, each kind of synovial joint is vital to carry out the body via its great adaptability and also mobility. There are many type of forms of activity that deserve to occur at synovial joints ((Figure)). Movement kinds are generally paired, via one being the opposite of the various other. Body activities are constantly described in relation to the anatomical place of the body: upright stance, via upper limbs to the side of body and also palms dealing with forward. Refer to (Figure) as you go with this section.

You are watching: Which of the following movements does not increase or decrease the angle between bones


Watch this video to learn around anatomical movements. What movements involve boosting or decreasing the angle of the foot at the ankle?


Synovial joints offer the body many type of means in which to relocate. (a)–(b) Flexion and also extension activities are in the sagittal (anterior–posterior) plane of motion. These movements take place at the shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal, and also interphalangeal joints. (c)–(d) Anterior bending of the head or vertebral column is flexion, while any posterior-going motion is extension. (e) Abduction and also adduction are movements of the limbs, hand, fingers, or toes in the coronal (medial–lateral) aircraft of activity. Moving the limb or hand also laterally ameans from the body, or spreading the fingers or toes, is abduction. Adduction brings the limb or hand also towards or across the midline of the body, or brings the fingers or toes together. Circumduction is the movement of the limb, hand, or fingers in a circular pattern, making use of the sequential combicountry of flexion, adduction, expansion, and also abduction motions. Adduction/abduction and also circumduction take place at the shoulder, hip, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints. (f) Turning of the head side to side or twisting of the body is rotation. Medial and also lateral rotation of the upper limb at the shoulder or reduced limb at the hip entails turning the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body (medial or inner rotation) or away from the midline (lateral or exterior rotation).

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(g) Supicountry of the forearm turns the hand also to the palm forward place in which the radius and ulna are parallel, while forearm pronation transforms the hand also to the palm backward position in which the radius crosses over the ulna to form an “X.” (h) Dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle joint moves the height of the foot toward the leg, while plantar flexion lifts the heel and also points the toes. (i) Evariation of the foot moves the bottom (sole) of the foot away from the midline of the body, while foot inversion faces the single toward the midline. (j) Protractivity of the mandible pushes the chin forward, and retractivity pulls the chin ago. (k) Depression of the mandible opens the mouth, while elevation closes it. (l) Opplace of the thumb brings the reminder of the thumb into call with the reminder of the fingers of the very same hand and also reposition brings the thumb back next to the index finger.
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Flexion and Extension

Flexion and expansion are activities that take area within the sagittal aircraft and involve anterior or posterior motions of the body or limbs. For the vertebral column, flexion (anterior flexion) is an anterior (forward) bfinishing of the neck or body, while extension requires a posterior-directed movement, such as straightening from a flexed place or bfinishing backward. Lateral flexion is the bfinishing of the neck or body toward the best or left side. These movements of the vertebral column involve both the symphysis joint formed by each intervertebral disc, and also the airplane type of synovial joint developed between the inferior articular processes of one vertebra and also the premium articular procedures of the following reduced vertebra.

In the limbs, flexion decreases the angle between the bones (bending of the joint), while expansion boosts the angle and straightens the joint. For the top limb, all anterior-going activities are flexion and all posterior-going movements are expansion. These include anterior-posterior motions of the arm at the shoulder, the forearm at the elbow, the hand at the wrist, and the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and also interphalangeal joints. For the thumb, extension moves the thumb amethod from the palm of the hand also, within the exact same airplane as the palm, while flexion brings the thumb earlier versus the index finger or right into the palm. These movements take place at the first carpometacarpal joint. In the reduced limb, bringing the thigh forward and upward is flexion at the hip joint, while any kind of posterior-going activity of the thigh is extension. Note that expansion of the thigh beyond the anatomical (standing) position is considerably restricted by the ligaments that assistance the hip joint. Knee flexion is the bending of the knee to carry the foot towards the posterior thigh, and also expansion is the straightening of the knee. Flexion and also expansion activities are seen at the hinge, condyloid, saddle, and also ball-and-socket joints of the limbs (see (Figure)a-d).

Hyperextension is the abnormal or excessive expansion of a joint past its normal range of motion, thus resulting in injury. Similarly, hyperflexion is extreme flexion at a joint. Hyperexpansion injuries are widespread at hinge joints such as the knee or elbow. In cases of “whiplash” in which the head is unexpectedly relocated backward and then forward, a patient may experience both hyperexpansion and also hyperflexion of the cervical region.


Abduction and Adduction

Abduction and also adduction activities happen within the coronal plane and also involve medial-lateral activities of the limbs, fingers, toes, or thumb. Abduction moves the limb laterally amethod from the midline of the body, while adduction is the opposing activity that brings the limb towards the body or throughout the midline. For instance, abduction is raising the arm at the shoulder joint, moving it laterally amethod from the body, while adduction brings the arm down to the side of the body. Similarly, abduction and adduction at the wrist moves the hand also away from or toward the midline of the body. Spreading the fingers or toes apart is also abduction, while bringing the fingers or toes together is adduction. For the thumb, abduction is the anterior motion that brings the thumb to a 90° perpendicular position, pointing right out from the palm. Adduction moves the thumb ago to the anatomical position, alongside the index finger. Abduction and adduction motions are viewed at condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints (watch (Figure)e).


Circumduction

Circumduction is the activity of a body area in a circular manner, in which one finish of the body region being moved remains reasonably stationary while the various other finish explains a circle. It entails the sequential combicountry of flexion, adduction, expansion, and also abduction at a joint. This kind of activity is found at biaxial condyloid and also saddle joints, and also at multiaxial ball-and-sockets joints (check out (Figure)e).


Rotation

Rotation have the right to occur within the vertebral column, at a pivot joint, or at a ball-and-socket joint. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement created by the summation of the tiny rotational motions available between surrounding vertebrae. At a pivot joint, one bone rotates in relation to one more bone. This is a uniaxial joint, and hence rotation is the only motion permitted at a pivot joint. For example, at the atlantoaxial joint, the initially cervical (C1) vertebra (atlas) rotates approximately the dens, the upward projection from the second cervical (C2) vertebra (axis). This permits the head to turn from side to side as when shaking the head “no.” The proximal radioulnar joint is a pivot joint created by the head of the radius and also its articulation via the ulna. This joint permits for the radius to turn alengthy its size during procountry and supination movements of the forearm.

Rotation have the right to additionally take place at the ball-and-socket joints of the shoulder and also hip. Here, the humerus and femur turn about their long axis, which moves the anterior surchallenge of the arm or thigh either towards or away from the midline of the body. Movement that brings the anterior surconfront of the limb towards the midline of the body is referred to as medial (internal) rotation. Conversely, rotation of the limb so that the anterior surconfront moves amethod from the midline is lateral (external) rotation (check out (Figure)f). Be certain to identify medial and also lateral rotation, which have the right to only happen at the multiaxial shoulder and also hip joints, from circumduction, which have the right to happen at either biaxial or multiaxial joints.


Supination and Pronation

Supicountry and also pronation are motions of the forearm. In the anatomical place, the upper limb is organized beside the body through the palm facing forward. This is the supinated position of the forearm. In this place, the radius and ulna are parallel to each various other. When the palm of the hand encounters backward, the forearm is in the pronated place, and also the radius and ulna kind an X-shape.

Supination and also procountry are the movements of the forearm that go between these two positions. Pronation is the movement that moves the forearm from the supinated (anatomical) place to the pronated (palm backward) place. This movement is developed by rotation of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint, accompanied by motion of the radius at the distal radioulnar joint. The proximal radioulnar joint is a pivot joint that enables for rotation of the head of the radius. Since of the slight curvature of the shaft of the radius, this rotation reasons the distal finish of the radius to cross over the distal ulna at the distal radioulnar joint. This crossing over brings the radius and also ulna right into an X-form place. Supicountry is the oppowebsite activity, in which rotation of the radius retransforms the bones to their parallel positions and moves the palm to the anterior facing (supinated) place. It helps to remember that supination is the motion you use when scooping up soup with a spoon (check out (Figure)g).


Dorsiflexion and also Plantar Flexion

Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are activities at the ankle joint, which is a hinge joint. Lifting the front of the foot, so that the height of the foot moves towards the anterior leg is dorsiflexion, while lifting the heel of the foot from the ground or pointing the toes downward is plantar flexion. These are the just movements obtainable at the ankle joint (watch (Figure)h).


Inversion and Eversion

Invariation and eversion are complicated movements that involve the multiple aircraft joints among the tarsal bones of the posterior foot (intertarsal joints) and also for this reason are not activities that take place at the ankle joint. Invariation is the turning of the foot to angle the bottom of the foot towards the midline, while eversion transforms the bottom of the foot away from the midline. The foot has a higher variety of invariation than evariation motion. These are necessary movements that assist to stabilize the foot as soon as walking or running on an uneven surconfront and assist in the quick side-to-side alters in direction offered during energetic sports such as basketround, racquetround, or soccer (see (Figure)i).


Protractivity and also Retraction

Protractivity and also retraction are anterior-posterior activities of the scapula or mandible. Protractivity of the scapula occurs once the shoulder is relocated forward, as when pushing versus somepoint or throwing a sphere. Retractivity is the opposite motion, via the scapula being pulled posteriorly and also medially, towards the vertebral column. For the mandible, protraction occurs once the lower jaw is puburned forward, to stick out the chin, while retraction pulls the reduced jaw backward. (See (Figure)j.)


Depression and also Elevation

Depression and also elevation are downward and also upward activities of the scapula or mandible. The upward activity of the scapula and also shoulder is elevation, while a downward activity is depression. These movements are provided to shrug your shoulders. Similarly, elevation of the mandible is the upward activity of the lower jaw offered to close the mouth or bite on something, and depression is the downward activity that produces opening of the mouth (see (Figure)k).


Excursion

Excursion is the side to side activity of the mandible. Lateral excursion moves the mandible away from the midline, toward either the right or left side. Medial excursion retransforms the mandible to its relaxing place at the midline.


Superior Rotation and also Inferior Rotation

Superior and inferior rotation are activities of the scapula and also are identified by the direction of motion of the glenoid cavity. These activities involve rotation of the scapula roughly a point inferior to the scapular spine and also are created by combicountries of muscles acting on the scapula. During premium rotation, the glenoid cavity moves upward as the medial finish of the scapular spine moves downward. This is an extremely crucial activity that contributes to upper limb abduction. Without remarkable rotation of the scapula, the higher tubercle of the humerus would hit the acromion of the scapula, hence avoiding any abduction of the arm over shoulder elevation. Superior rotation of the scapula is hence compelled for complete abduction of the upper limb. Superior rotation is also supplied without arm abduction as soon as transporting a heavy pack with your hand also or on your shoulder. You have the right to feel this rotation when you pick up a load, such as a hefty book bag and lug it on only one shoulder. To rise its weight-bearing support for the bag, the shoulder lifts as the scapula superiorly rotates. Inferior rotation occurs in the time of limb adduction and also entails the downward motion of the glenoid cavity through upward movement of the medial finish of the scapular spine.


Opplace and also Reposition

Opposition is the thumb motion that brings the guideline of the thumb in contact via the pointer of a finger. This activity is produced at the first carpometacarpal joint, which is a saddle joint developed between the trapezium carpal bone and the initially metacarpal bone. Thumb opposition is created by a combination of flexion and abduction of the thumb at this joint. Returning the thumb to its anatomical place next to the index finger is dubbed reposition (see (Figure)l).

Movements of the JointsType of JointMovementExample
PivotUniaxial joint; allows rotational movementAtlantoaxial joint (C1–C2 vertebrae articulation); proximal radioulnar joint
HingeUniaxial joint; permits flexion/extension movementsKnee; elbow; ankle; interphalangeal joints of fingers and also toes
CondyloidBiaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction movementsMetacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints of fingers; radiocarpal joint of wrist; metatarsophalangeal joints for toes
SaddleBiaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction movementsFirst carpometacarpal joint of the thumb; sternoclavicular joint
PlaneMultiaxial joint; permits inversion and also eversion of foot, or flexion, extension, and also lateral flexion of the vertebral columnIntertarsal joints of foot; superior-inferior articular procedure articulations between vertebrae
Ball-and-socketMultiaxial joint; enables flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, and medial/lateral rotation movementsShoulder and hip joints

Chapter Review

The range of motions gave by the different types of synovial joints permits for a large array of body movements and also gives you tremendous mobility. These movements permit you to flex or extfinish your body or limbs, medially turn and adduct your arms and also flex your elbows to host a hefty object against your chest, raise your arms above your head, revolve or shake your head, and bfinish to touch the toes (via or without bending your knees).

Each of the various structural forms of synovial joints additionally enable for specific motions. The atlantoaxial pivot joint gives side-to-side rotation of the head, while the proximal radioulnar articulation enables for rotation of the radius during procountry and supicountry of the forearm. Hinge joints, such as at the knee and elbow, enable only for flexion and also expansion. Similarly, the hinge joint of the ankle only enables for dorsiflexion and also plantar flexion of the foot.

Condyloid and also saddle joints are biaxial. These permit for flexion and extension, and abduction and also adduction. The sequential combicountry of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction produces circumduction. Multiaxial plane joints administer for only tiny activities, yet these can include together over numerous adjacent joints to produce body movement, such as inversion and also eversion of the foot. Similarly, airplane joints enable for flexion, extension, and also lateral flexion motions of the vertebral column. The multiaxial sphere and also socket joints enable for flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and circumduction. In addition, these also permit for medial (internal) and lateral (external) rotation. Ball-and-socket joints have the greatest selection of motion of all synovial joints.


Watch this video to learn around anatomical activities. What movements involve boosting or decreasing the angle of the foot at the ankle?


Dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle decreases the angle of the ankle joint, while plantar flexion rises the angle of the ankle joint.


The joints between the articular processes of nearby vertebrae have the right to contribute to which movement?

lateral flexioncircumductiondorsiflexionabduction

Which motion moves the bottom of the foot away from the midline of the body?

elevationdorsiflexioneversionplantar flexion

Movement of a body area in a circular activity at a condyloid joint is what kind of motion?

rotationelevationabductioncircumduction

Supicountry is the movement that moves the ________.

hand also from the palm backward position to the palm forward positionfoot so that the bottom of the foot deals with the midline of the bodyhand from the palm forward position to the palm backward positionscapula in an upward direction

Movement at the shoulder joint that moves the top limb laterally amethod from the body is referred to as ________.

elevationeversionabductionlateral rotation

C


Critical Thinking Questions


Briefly define the kinds of joint motions accessible at a ball-and-socket joint.


Ball-and-socket joints are multiaxial joints that enable for flexion and also extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction, and medial and also lateral rotation.


Discuss the joints affiliated and motions required for you to cross your arms together in front of your chest.

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To cross your arms, you have to usage both your shoulder and also elbow joints. At the shoulder, the arm would certainly must flex and medially turn. At the elbow, the forearm would certainly should be flexed.


Glossary

abductionmovement in the coronal airplane that moves a limb laterally ameans from the body; spanalysis of the fingersadductionmotion in the coronal plane that moves a limb medially towards or throughout the midline of the body; bringing fingers togethercircumductioncircular motion of the arm, thigh, hand also, thumb, or finger that is created by the sequential combicountry of flexion, abduction, expansion, and adductiondepressiondownward (inferior) motion of the scapula or mandibledorsiflexionmovement at the ankle that brings the peak of the foot towards the anterior legelevationupward (superior) movement of the scapula or mandibleeversionfoot movement including the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned laterally, amethod from the midlineextensionmovement in the sagittal aircraft that boosts the angle of a joint (straightens the joint); motion involving posterior bending of the vertebral column or returning to the upbest place from a flexed positionflexionmotion in the sagittal aircraft that decreases the angle of a joint (bends the joint); motion involving anterior bending of the vertebral columnhyperextensionextreme extension of joint, past the normal selection of movementhyperflexionexcessive flexion of joint, past the normal array of movementinferior rotationactivity of the scapula throughout upper limb adduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in a downward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in an upward directioninversionfoot motion including the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned toward the midlinelateral excursionside-to-side movement of the mandible away from the midline, toward either the appropriate or left sidelateral flexionbfinishing of the neck or body towards the best or left sidelateral (external) rotationactivity of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that moves the anterior surface of the limb away from the midline of the bodymedial excursionside-to-side motion that retransforms the mandible to the midlinemedial (internal) rotationactivity of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that brings the anterior surconfront of the limb toward the midline of the bodyoppositionthumb motion that brings the guideline of the thumb in call with the reminder of a fingerplantar flexionfoot activity at the ankle in which the heel is lifted off of the groundpronated positionforearm place in which the palm deals with backwardpronationforearm motion that moves the palm of the hand from the palm forward to the palm backward positionprotractionanterior movement of the scapula or mandiblerepositionactivity of the thumb from opplace earlier to the anatomical position (alongside index finger)retractionposterior motion of the scapula or mandiblerotationmovement of a bone around a central axis (atlantoaxial joint) or around its long axis (proximal radioulnar joint; shoulder or hip joint); twisting of the vertebral column resulting from the summation of small movements in between nearby vertebraesuperior rotationmovement of the scapula in the time of upper limb abduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in an upward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in a downward directionsupinated positionforearm position in which the palm deals with anteriorly (anatomical position)supinationforearm movement that moves the palm of the hand also from the palm backward to the palm forward position