Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology.
You are watching: Which of the following is a primary reinforcer in operant conditioning?
David Susman, PhD is a licensed clinical psychologist with experience providing treatment to individuals with mental illness and substance use concerns.
One of the many different ways in which people can learn is through a process known as operant conditioning (also known as instrumental conditioning). This involves learning through reinforcement or punishment. The type of reinforcement used can play an important role in how quickly a behavior is learned and the overall strength of the resulting response.
Reinforcement is a term used inoperant conditioningto refer to anything that increases the likelihood that a response will occur. Psychologist B.F. Skinner is considered the father of this theory. Note that reinforcement is defined by the effect that it has on behavior—it increases or strengthens the response.
For example, reinforcement might involve presenting praise (the reinforcer) immediately after a child puts away her toys (the response). By reinforcing the desired behavior with praise, the child will be more likely to perform the same actions again in the future.
Reinforcement can include anything that strengthens or increases a behavior, including specific tangible rewards, events, and situations. In a classroom setting, for example, types of reinforcement might include praise, getting out of unwanted work, token rewards, candy, extra playtime, and fun activities.
Primary and Secondary Reinforcement
Here's some background on the two main types of reinforcement.
Primary reinforcement is sometimes referred to as unconditional reinforcement. It occurs naturally and doesn't require learning in order to work. Primary reinforcers often have an evolutionary basis in that they aid in the survival of the species.
Genetics and experience may also play a role in how reinforcing such things works. For example, while one person might find a certain type of food very rewarding, another person may not like that food at all.
Secondary reinforcement, also known as conditioned reinforcement, involves stimuli that have become rewarding by being paired with another reinforcing stimulus. For example, when training a dog, praise and treats might be used as primary reinforcers. The sound of a clicker can be associated with the praise and treats until the sound of the clicker itself begins to work as a secondary reinforcer.
Types of Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, there are two different types of reinforcement. Both of these forms of reinforcement influence behavior, but they do so in different ways. The two types include:
While these terms involve the words positive and negative, it's important to note that Skinner did not utilize these to mean “good” or “bad.” Instead, think of what these terms would mean when used mathematically.
Positive is the equivalent of a plus sign, meaning something is added to or applied to the situation. Negative is the equivalent of a minus sign, meaning something is removed or subtracted from the situation.
Here are a few real-world examples of how reinforcement can be utilized to change behavior.
During practice for your office softball team, the coach yells out, “Great job!” after you throw a pitch. Because of this, you're more likely to pitch the ball the same way again. This is an example of positive reinforcement.
Another example is while at work, you exceed your manager's sales quota for the month and so you receive a bonus as part of your paycheck. This makes it more likely that you will try to exceed the minimum sales quota again next month.
You go to your doctor to get your yearly flu shot in order to avoid coming down with the flu. In this case, you are engaging in a behavior (getting a shot) to avoid an aversive stimulus (getting sick). This is an example of negative reinforcement.
Another example is if you slather some aloe vera gel on a sunburn to prevent the burn from hurting. Applying the gel on the burn prevents an aversive outcome (pain), so this is an example of negative reinforcement. Because engaging in the behavior minimizes an aversive outcome, you will be more likely to use aloe vera gel again in the future.
Negative reinforcement can also be seen if you took acetaminophen to get rid of a terrible headache. After about 15 or 20 minutes, the pain in your head finally recedes. Because taking the pills allowed you to eliminate an aversive situation, it makes it more likely that you will take the pain pills again in the future to deal with physical pain.
Strength of the Response
How and when reinforcement is delivered can affect the overall strength of response. This strength is measured by the following qualities of the response after reinforcement is halted:
In situations when present reinforcement is controlled, such as during training, the timing of when a reinforcer is presented can be manipulated. During the early stages of learning, continuous reinforcement is often used, such as when you first teach your dog a new trick. Thisschedule involves reinforcing a responseeach and every time it occurs.
Once a behavior has been acquired, it's often a good idea to switch to a partial reinforcement schedule. The four main types of partial reinforcement include:
A Word From Verywell
Reinforcement plays a vital role in the operant conditioning process. When used appropriately, reinforcement can be an effective learning tool to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.
It's important to remember that what constitutes reinforcement can vary from one person to another. In a classroom setting, for example, one child may find a treat reinforcing while another might be indifferent to such a reward. In some instances, what is reinforcing might actually come as a surprise.
If a child only receives attention from his parents when he is being scolded, that attention can actually reinforce the misbehavior. By learning more about how reinforcement works, you can gain a better understanding of how different types of reinforcement contribute to learning and behavior.
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