Cross-sectional studies space observational researches that analysis data native a population at a single point in time. Castle are often used to measure up the ubiquity of health outcomes, understand factors of health, and describe features of a population. Unequal other species of observational studies, cross-sectional studies do not follow individuals up end time. They space usually inexpensive and also easy come conduct. Castle are helpful for establishing preliminary evidence in to plan a future progressed study. This post reviews the crucial characteristics, defines strengths and weaknesses, discusses methodological issues, and also gives our references on design and statistical evaluation for cross-sectional research studies in pulmonary and an important care medicine. A list of considerations for reviewers is also provided.

You are watching: Which of the following hypotheses best fits the criteria of causality?


In clinical research, a cross-sectional research is a type of observational study design that entails looking at data indigenous a population at one certain point in time. In a cross-sectional study, investigators measure up outcomes and exposures that the examine subjects at the same time. That is explained as acquisition a “snapshot” of a group of individuals.
unequal in case-control researches (subjects selected based upon the outcome status) or cohort researches (subjects selected based on the exposure status), the topics in a cross-sectional examine are just chosen indigenous an available populace of potential relevance to the examine question. Over there is no prospective or retrospective follow-up. When the subjects room selected, the investigators will collect the data and also assess the associations in between outcomes and exposures. Figure 1 presents a schematic representation of a usual cross-sectional study.
*

Figure 1A schematic representation of a common cross-sectional study. Data are collected on both outcomes and exposures that the individuals at a given allude in time.
Cross-sectional studies have actually been greatly used to understand the prevalence of a an illness in clinical research. Pervasiveness refers to the proportion of persons in a population who have a particular condition or attribute at a provided time, nevertheless of when they first developed the disease. The is important to identify prevalence from incidence. Incidence refers to the number of new cases that develop in a given period of time. In a cross-sectional study, researchers generally describe the distribution of variables in a population. They may assess the prevalence of a condition or association of an exposure to an end result in a population.
In a simple hypothetical instance of a cross-sectional study, we document the prevalence of COPD and also investigate the association in between COPD and also smoking condition in adult patients. The outcome variable is the visibility or lack of COPD, and also the exposure is the smoking status. This study can be conducted by interviewing participants around their smoking background and, in ~ the very same time, assessing COPD status clinically.
Because the outcome and exposure variables space measured in ~ the exact same time, the is relatively complicated to develop causal relationships from a cross-sectional study. Cross-sectional studies room usually fast and inexpensive come conduct. Castle are an ideal for generating hypotheses and also may administer information about the pervasiveness of outcomes and exposures that educates other study designs. In this paper, we evaluation the essential characteristics, define strengths and weaknesses, talk about methodological issues, and also give our recommendations on design and statistical evaluation for cross-sectional studies.
Cross-sectional studies deserve to be classified together descriptive or analytical, relying on whether the result variable is assessed for potential associations with exposures or risk factors. Descriptive cross-sectional studies just characterize the pervasiveness of one or multiple wellness outcomes in a mentioned population. In analysis cross-sectional studies, investigators collect data because that both exposures and also outcomes at one particular point gradually for the objective of comparing outcome differences between exposed and unexposed subjects. The exposures and outcomes are measured simultaneously; therefore, that is complicated to recognize whether the exposures preceded or complied with the outcomes in an analysis cross-sectional study.
In a subtype the cross-sectional study, recognized as the recurring (or serial) cross-sectional study, data collection is performed on the exact same target populace at different time points. At every time point, investigators take a different sample (different subjects) the the target population. Thus, recurring cross-sectional studies deserve to be offered for analyzing populace changes in time (also known as aggregate change over time). They can not be used to look at individual change (as in a cohort study).
Prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in patient treated for asthma in main care: overcome sectional survey.
conducted a descriptive cross-sectional inspection on the pervasiveness of dysfunctional breathing in patients treated because that asthma in main care. The the 4,381 patients aged 17 come 65 years registered with a diagnosis of asthma from the clinical records of a semirural general practice, 307 (7%) met the entrance criteria and also were sent out the Nijmegen Questionnaire for self-completion. A complete of 227 questionnaires were changed after one mail (response rate, 74%), of i m sorry 219 were an ideal for analysis. The main outcome to be a score ≥ 23 on the Nijmegen Questionnaire. In this study, the investigator discovered that about one-third the women and also one-fifth that men had actually scores suggestive of dysfunctional breathing.
Effect the passive smoking cigarettes on respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness, lung function, and also total serum IgE in the European ar Respiratory wellness Survey: a cross-sectional study.
perform an analytical cross-sectional study to investigate the association between passive smoking and also respiratory symptoms in the European community Respiratory wellness Survey. The analysis included data native 7,882 adult who had actually never smoked, indigenous 36 centers in 16 countries. Information was gathered through a structured interview. Spirometry and also methacholine an obstacle were performed, and total and certain IgE to be measured. Regression evaluation was conducted on the variables of interest to study the association between passive smoking on respiratory tract symptoms and lung function. The prevalence of passive smoking in the workplace varied from 2.5% to 53.8%. The study uncovered that passive smoking was significantly connected with nocturnal chest tightness, nocturnal breathlessness, breathlessness ~ activity, and increased bronchial responsiveness.
carried out a repetitive cross-sectional survey to investigate recent trends in COPD ubiquity in Spain. Estudio epidemiológico de EPOC en España (IBERPOC) and also the Epidemiologic examine of COPD in Spain (EPI-SCAN) to be two different epidemiologic survey researches of COPD in Spain, conducted in 1997 and in 2007, respectively. The repetitive cross-sectional survey allowed the authors to compare participants indigenous IBERPOC (n = 4,030) through those the EPI-SCAN (n = 3,802). They found that COPD prevalence in the population dropped from 9.1% in 1997 to 4.5%, a 50.4% decline. The circulation of COPD pervasiveness according to severity also readjusted from 38.3% mild, 39.7% moderate, and 22.0% severe in 1997, to 85.6% mild, 13.0% moderate, and 1.4% severe in 2007.
The key strength of cross-sectional research studies is that they are reasonably quick and inexpensive to conduct. They room the best method to recognize the prevalence and also can study the associations of lot of exposures and outcomes. The subjects are neither intentionally exposed no one treated; thus, there room seldom honest difficulties. Countless cross-sectional studies are done through questionnaires or interviews. Making use of questionnaires to with a big sample that the populace of attention is reasonably inexpensive but can an outcome in low response rates. Interviews are much more expensive and time-consuming than using questionnaires, possibly limiting the sample size yet leading to a greater response rate. The weakness of cross-sectional studies incorporate the i can not qualify to evaluate incidence, to examine rare diseases, and also to make a causal inference. Uneven studies starting from a collection of patients, cross-sectional studies regularly need to choose a sample of subjects from a huge and heterogeneous research population. Thus, they are susceptible to sampling bias. Us highlight the strengths and weaknesses the cross-sectional studies in Table 1.

See more: Happy Birthday Nicole Cake S Pic, Nicole Happy Birthday Cakes Pics Gallery


StrengthsRelatively quick and inexpensive to conduct
No moral difficulties
Data on every variables are only built up at one time point
Multiple outcomes and also exposures can be studied
Easy because that generating hypotheses
Many findings can be offered to produce an in-depth research study
WeaknessesUnable to measure the incidence
Difficult to make a causal inference
Associations identified can be difficult to interpret
Unable to inspection the temporal relation in between outcomes and risk factors
Not good for studying rare diseases
Susceptible to biases such as nonresponse bias and recall bias

Sample size determination is an important step in the style of a cross-sectional study. Sample dimension calculations are various for a descriptive cross-sectional survey and an analytical cross-sectional study. As soon as conducting a descriptive cross-sectional survey, the score is to calculation the pervasiveness of a particular outcome. Investigators require to provide the assumed values of the prevalence rate, p, the preferred margin that error, e (sometimes referred to as the desired precision), and the significance level. The formula can be uncovered in Eng.