Key Points

The Peloponnesian War finished in victory for Sparta and also its allies, but signaled the death of Athenian naval and political hegemony transparent the Mediterranean.Democracy in Athens was briefly toppled in 411 BCE as a result of its poor handling of the Peloponnesian War. Lysander, the Spartan admiral that commanded the Spartan fleet in ~ Aegospotami in 405 BCE, assisted to to organize the Thirty Tyrants as Athens’ government for the 13 months they preserved power.Lysander established numerous pro-Spartan federal governments throughout the Aegean, where the judgment classes were more loyal to him 보다 to Sparta together a whole. At some point Spartan kings, Agis and also Pausanias, abolished this Aegean decarchies, steering Lysander’s politics influence.Agesilaus II was one of two Spartan kings during the period of Spartan hegemony, and is remembered because that his multiple campaigns in the eastern Aegean and also Persian territories.Agesilaus’s loss at the fight of Leuctra efficiently ended Spartan hegemony throughout the region.

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Terms

hegemony

The political, economic, or military predominance or manage of one state end others.

harmosts

A Spartan term for a army governor.

oligarchy

A form of power framework in i beg your pardon a little group of people hold all power and influence in a state.


The Peloponnesian War ended in success for Sparta and also its allies, and led directly to the rising naval power of Sparta. However, it significant the death of Athenian naval and political hegemony throughout the Mediterranean. The damage from the Peloponnesian war weakened and also divided the Greeks for years come come, eventually allowing the Macedonians an opportunity to dominate them in the mid-4th century BCE.

Athens

Democracy in Athens to be briefly overthrown in 411 BCE as a result of its negative handling of the Peloponnesian War. Citizens reacted versus Athens’ defeat, blaming democratic politicians, such together Cleon and also Cleophon. The Spartan military encouraged revolt, installation a pro-Spartan oligarchy within Athens, dubbed the Thirty Tyrants, in 404 BCE. Lysander, the Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet at Aegospotami in 405 BCE, helped to organize the Thirty Tyrants together a government for the 13 month they maintained power.

During the Thirty Tyrants’ rule, five percent the the Athenian population was killed, private property to be confiscated, and democratic pendant were exiled. The Thirty appointed a board of directors of 500 to offer the judicial functions that had formerly belonged to every citizens. Regardless of all this, not all Athenian men had their civil liberties removed. In fact, 3,000 such males were preferred by the Thirty come share in the federal government of Athens. These men were permitted to lug weapons, licensed has been granted to jury trial, and allowed to reside v the city limits. This list of men was constantly gift revised, and choice was most most likely a reflection of commitment to the regime, with the bulk of Athenians not supporting the Thirty Tyrants’ rule.

Nonetheless, the Thirty’s program was no met with lot overt opposition for the majority of your rule, as a an outcome of the harsh penalties inserted on dissenters. Eventually, the level of violence and brutality brought out by the Thirty in Athens led to raised opposition, stemming primarily from a rebel team of exiles led by Thrasybulus, a previous trierarch in the Athenian navy. The increased opposition culminated in a revolution that at some point overthrew the Thirty’s regime. In the aftermath, Athens provided amnesty come the 3,000 men who were provided special treatment under the regime, with the exception of those who consisted of the administer Thirty and their associated governmental officials. Athens struggled to recoup from the upheaval caused by the Thirty Tyrants in the years the followed.

Sparta

As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, which had actually primarily to be a continent culture, ended up being a naval power. At its peak, Sparta overpowered many an essential Greek states, including the upstream Athenian navy. Through the end of the 5th century BCE, Sparta’s successes against the Athenian empire and capability to invade Persian provinces in Anatolia introduced a duration of Spartan hegemony. This hegemonic duration was to be short-lived, however.

Lysander

After the end of the Peloponnesian War, Lysander established many pro-Spartan federal governments throughout the Aegean. Most of the ruling systems collection up by Lysander to be ten-man oligarchies, called decarchies, in which harmosts, Spartan military governors, were the heads of the government. Due to the fact that Lysander appointed from within the ruling classes of these governments, the men were more loyal come Lysander 보다 Sparta, making these Aegean outposts similar to a private empire.

Lysander and Spartan king Agis were in commitment with Corinth and Thebes that Athens should be completely destroyed in the results of the Peloponnesian War, yet they to be opposed through a much more moderate faction, top by Pausanias. Eventually, Pausanias’ moderate faction acquired the upper hand and also Athens to be spared, despite its defensive walls and also port fortifications at Piraeus were demolished. Lysander likewise managed to call for Athens to recall the exiles, causing political instability in ~ the city-state, of which Lysander took benefit to create the oligarchy that became known as the Thirty Tyrants. Because Lysander was additionally directly connected in the selection of the Thirty, these men were faithful to him end Sparta, leading to King Agis and also King Pausanias to agree come the abolishment the his Aegean decarchies, and also eventually the repair of democracy in Athens, which conveniently curbed Lysander’s politics influence.


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Lysander. A 16th century sculpture of Lysander


 

Agesilaus and also His Campaigns

Agesilaus II was among two Spartan kings during the duration of Spartan hegemony. Lysander was one of Agesilaus’s biggest supporters, and was also a mentor. During his kingship, Agesilaus carried out a number of military projects in the east Aegean and Persian territories. Throughout these campaigns, the Spartans under Agesilaus’s command met with countless rebelling Greek poleis, consisting of the Thebans. The Thebans, Argives, Corinthians, and also Athenians had actually rebelled during the Corinthian battle from 395-386 BCE, and also the Persians aided the Thebans, Corinthians, and also Athenians versus the Spartans.

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During the winter that 379/378 BCE, a group of Theban exiles snuck right into Thebes and succeeded in liberating it, despite resistance native a 1,500-strong Spartan garrison. This led to a number of Spartan expeditions against Thebes, known as The Boeotian War. The Greek city-states eventually attempted come broker peace, but Theban diplomat Epaminondas angered Agesilaus by saying for the flexibility of non-Spartan citizens within Laconia. Together a result, Agesilaus to exclude, the Thebans indigenous the treaty, and also the battle of Leuctra damaged out in 371 BCE; the Spartans eventually lost. Sparta’s global political influence precipitated easily after their defeat.