The "Big 4" the the Paris peace Conference of 1919 were (left to right) Lloyd George the England, Orlando the Italy, Clemenceau the France, and Woodrow Wilson that the joined States.

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As the war attracted to a close, Woodrow Wilson set forth his plan for a "just peace." Wilson thought that basic flaws in worldwide relations developed an unhealthy climate that led inexorably to the human being War. His Fourteen points outlined his vision for a much safer world. Wilson referred to as for an end to secret diplomacy, a reduction of armaments, and freedom the the seas. He declared that reduce to profession barriers, same adjustment that colonies, and respect for nationwide self-determination would mitigate economic and nationalist sentiments that bring about war. Finally, Wilson suggest an global organization consisting of representatives of every the world"s nations that would serve as a forum versus allowing any type of conflict to escalate. Unfortunately, Wilson might not impose his human being view top top the victorious allied Powers. Once they met in Paris to hammer the end the regards to the peace, the european leaders had actually other ideas.

The Paris peace Conference

Most of the decision made in ~ the Paris peace Conference were made by the large Four, consists of president Wilson, David Lloyd George of good Britain, Georges Clemenceau that France, and Vittorio Orlando the Italy. The European leaders were no interested in a just peace. They to be interested in retribution. End Wilson"s protests, they ignored the Fourteen clues one by one. Germany to be to recognize guilt for the war and also pay unlimited reparations. The German military was decreased to a residential police force and also its are was truncated to benefit the new nations of east Europe. The territories of Alsace and Lorraine were restored to France. German nests were handed in trusteeship come the victorious Allies. No provisions to be made come end mystery diplomacy or preserve liberty of the seas. Wilson did obtain approval because that his proposal for a organization of Nations. Dismayed by the overall results, but hopeful the a strong League can prevent future wars, he changed to present the treaty of Versailles to the Senate.

Defeating the organization of Nations

Unfortunately because that Wilson, he to be met through stiff opposition. The Republican leader that the Senate, Henry Cabot Lodge, was really suspicious of Wilson and his treaty. Short article X of the league of Nations forced the United claims to respect the territorial integrity of member states. Return there to be no requirement compelling one American declaration of war, the united States might be bound to impose an financial embargo or come sever diplomatic relations. Lodge perceived the league as a supranational federal government that would certainly limit the strength of the American government from identify its own affairs. Others thought the league was the type of entangling alliance the joined States had actually avoided because George Washington"s taking leave Address. Lodge sabotaged the League agreement by heralding the United claims exempt from short article X. He attached reservations, or amendments, come the treaty to this effect. Wilson, bedridden native a debilitating stroke, to be unable to expropriate these changes. That asked Senate democrats to vote versus the treaty of Versailles uneven the Lodge appointments were dropped. Neither next budged, and the treaty went under to defeat.

Why go the United says fail come ratify the Versailles Treaty and also join the league of Nations? personal enmity between Wilson and Lodge played a part. Wilson could have prudently invite a prominent Republican to accompany him to Paris to assist ensure its later passage. Wilson"s fading health removed the opportunity of making a strong an individual appeal on behalf of the treaty. Ethnic groups in the unified States assisted its defeat. German american felt their fatherland was being treated as well harshly. Italian americans felt more territory should have been awarded to Italy. Ireland Americans criticized the treaty for failing to deal with the issue of irish independence. Diehard American isolationists worried about a permanent global involvement. The stubborness of chairman Wilson led him to ask his very own party to scuttle the treaty. The final results of every these factors had mammoth longterm consequences. There is no the joining of the world"s newest superpower, the organization of countries was doomed to failure. End the following two decades, the United states would sit top top the sidelines as the unjust treaty of Versailles and also the ineffective league of nations would collection the phase for an even bloodier, much more devastating clash.


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Henry Cabot LodgeThe main Senate biography of Henry Cabot Lodge who led the congressional opposition to the league of Nations.

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Wilson and also the organization of Nations
In 22 days president Wilson travel 8000 miles across the joined States and gave 38 speeches in assistance of the organization of Nations, and also the gruelling pace brought about a paralyzing stroke.

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Listen as Henry Cabot Lodge provides his case versus Woodrow Wilson"s league of Nations, below as a RealAudio or wav file.Learn More...

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