“All warfare is based on deception,” sun Tzu composed in The art of War, an old Chinese military treatise, often regarded as among the most influential publications ever written on war strategy. For centuries, sunlight Tzu’s words have actually been gospel for army strategist, businessmen and also lawyers alike.

Military deception is as old as battle itself. The great city that Troy dropped to the Greeks largely because of the Trojan horse—a deception. Smoke screens, a deceptive an approach used to mask the movement of armed forces units, were first used through the Greeks throughout the Peloponnesian battle in the fifth century BC. During the Gothic War between the byzantine Empire and the Kingdom that Italy, Roman basic Belisarius lit a lengthy chain that campfires to exaggeration his troop’s size, resulting in the much larger military of Goths to flee in panic. The Mongols often lured their opponents into traps by feigning retreat. They additionally used straw dummies to give an impression of a larger army.

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Quaker firearms at Manassas Junction march 1862.

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Deception proved an extremely fruitful throughout the American change in 1780. As soon as the continental forces under the command that Colonel wilhelm Washington assaulted a strengthened barn close to Camden, southern Carolina, wherein the Loyalists under Colonel Henry Rugeley had barricaded themselves, the Colonel request his men to surround the barn and prepare a jaw log the resembled a cannon. He pointed the “cannon” towards the building and threatened to punch it far if the Loyalists didn’t surrender. Rugeley’s men meekly surrendered there is no a solitary shot having actually been fired.

This was the very first recorded incident of a “Quaker gun”—the surname is a recommendation to the spiritual community the Quakers who thought in pacifism and also non-violence.

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Quaker gun near Centreville, Virginia, in march 1862, ~ the Confederate withdrawal; a guy with a pole is pretending come \"fire\" it v a linstock

Quaker weapons played a small but significant role throughout the American civil War. Native the American civil War: The definitive Encyclopedia and file Collection:

One at an early stage example of Quaker guns emerged on September 28, 1861, once Confederate forces evacuated Munson\"s Hill , Virginia, leaving their earthworks to an proceeding Union force. Once the Union soldiers got to the Con­federate lines, they discovered two logs and also one stovepipe guarding a shallow ditch fairly than the three Parrot guns reported by Union scouts.

During significant General George B. McClellan \"s Peninsula campaign (March—July 1862), Confederate defenders attempting to hold-up the army of the grape max again resorted come deception. In at an early stage 1862 McClellan, never an wild commander, refused President Abraham Lincoln\"s recurring request that he breakthrough south indigenous Washington to Richmond, picking to think reports the he faced virtually 100,000 Confederate troops in ~ Manassas Junction, sustained by an ext than 300 pho pieces. In reality, his front to be opposed by just 40,000 soldiers and also a wide assortment of Quaker guns. McClellan\"s hesitation combined with the gullibility that Union scouts resulted in a hold-up of weeks, which permitted Confederate general Joseph E. Johns ton come organize the defenses that the Confederate capital.

When Johnston bespeak the evacuation of the Manassas-Centreville line, newspaper reporters conveniently noticed that he had actually left a far-reaching quantity the desperately essential artillery. Come McClellan\"s humiliation, after closer investigate it was established that the \"\"artillery\" were logs painted black. In the Siege the Yorktown (April 5—May 3, 1862), Confederate significant general john B. Magruder also made comprehensive use the Quaker guns.

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The Union side additionally employed Quaker weapons in the Peninsula project (March-July 1862).