Silicon, a chemicalelement through the prize Si and also atomic number 14, is a crystalline solid with ablue-grey metallic luster. According to the Pauli scale, that electronegativityvalue is 1.90 and it deserve to show features of both metals and non-metals(metalloid). Its oxides present an amphoteric nature as its oxidation statesexhibit -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4.

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Silicon with 96.5% -99.5% purity deserve to be make by reduce quartzite or sand with very purifiedcoke. The reduction process takes location in presence of excess SiO2 whichhelps to stop the manufacturing of silicon carbide (SiC).

SiO2+ 2 C → Si + 2 CO2 SiC + SiO2→ 3 Si + 2 CO

You are right here toknow valence electrons of the silicon atom, aren’t you? Don’t worry along with siliconvalence electrons we will define its valency also. But before that let’s havesome simple ideas about what these two terms are:

Difference BetweenValence Electrons and also Valency

Valence electronsare the total number of electrons current in the outermost covering of one atom(i.e. In outermost orbital). The valence electrons because that a neutral atom arealways definite, it can not be differed (more or less) in any kind of condition for aparticular atom and may or might not be equal to the valency.


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Valency is definedas the total number of electrons an atom have the right to lose, gain, or share at the timeof bond development to obtain a stable digital configuration i.e. To finish anoctet. The valency of one atom can be change in various compounds or chemicalreactions as result of the different bonding circumstances. Many of the moment valencyvaries/changes early to adjust in oxidation and also reduction states.

Silicon (Si)Valence Electrons

There are foursimple steps to find out the valence electrons because that silicon atom i m sorry are:

Step 1: uncover theAtomic Number


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To find out theatomic number of silicon, we deserve to use the periodic table. With the aid of theperiodic table, we can easily see the the atomic variety of silicon is 14. Asits atom number is 14, it has 14 protons, and for neutral silicon, the numberof protons are always equal to the variety of electrons i.e. Has 14 electrons inits nucleus.

Step 2: WriteElectron Configuration


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Electronconfiguration is the setup of electrons on the orbitals. The silicon atomhas a total of 14 electrons so, we have to put 14 electron in orbitals. The electronswill be placed in various orbitals according to the energy level: <1s, 2s,2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f>. Now,

Silicon electronconfiguration Si (14) =1s22s22p63s23p2(completeconfiguration).

= 3s²3p²(condensed configuration).

Step 3: DetermineValence Shell

As us know, thevalence covering of an atom have the right to be found from the highest variety of principlequantum number which room expressed in the ax of n, and also in 3s²3p², thehighest value of n is 3 so that the valence shell of silicon is3s²3p².

Step 4: FindValence Electrons

The complete number ofelectrons existing in the valence shell of one atom are dubbed valence electrons,and there are a full of 4 electrons present in the valence shell of silicon(3s²3p²). Thus,silicon has four valence electrons.

Valency of Silicon(Si)

There are manydifferent ways to uncover out the valency of an atom which reflects the capacity ofan atom come bond with other atoms. Valence defines how quickly an atom or afree radical can incorporate with various other chemical species. The valency of an atom isdetermined based upon the variety of electrons lost, gained, or common withanother atom at the moment of bond formation.

An atom is stated tobe stable once its outermost shells have eight electron (except H & He).If the total number of electrons in outermost shells is between one come four,the atom has actually positive valency and also if electron are in between four come eight, thevalency is calculation by subtracting from eight and also valency will certainly be zero. Atomshaving four outermost electrons possess both positive and negative valency, andatoms having eight outermost electrons, valency will be zero (i.e. Noblegases).

Elements favor siliconcan with the steady state (nearest inert gas configuration) one of two people by losing 4outermost electron or by getting 4 electrons.So the the valency that siliconis 4 (tetravalency).

Note: Silicon hasboth +4 & -4 valency states. If the loses three electrons to reach a stablestate (i.e. He), that is valency will certainly be +4. Yet if that gains five electrons toreach a secure state (i.e. Ne), that is valency will certainly be -4 as defined above.

In an additional sense, asilicon atom can form four covalent bond in chemistry bonding (For instance SiF4,SiH4, SiCl4, etc.), and that what valency is, the maximum ability to type bondswith various atoms at the time of chemical reactions.

We can additionally find the valency of silicon with thehelp of the regular table. As silicon belong to team 14 (IVa) along with carbon(C), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), command (Pb), and also flerovium (Fl). Every these elementshave a valency state of 4 (tetravalent).

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Clarification:Valency is the combining capacity of an element at the time of chemical bonding. So the valency can not be an adverse or positive, it is simply a number value in between 0 to 4.