Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican senator native Massachusetts. Close friend to Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge sustained imperialist endeavors and also favored army preparedness following the outbreak of civilization War I. Together chairman that the Senate international Relations Committee, Lodge protest President Woodrow Wilson over ratification that the treaty of Versailles.
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The Boston Elite↑
Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924) to be born into a influential Boston family members in 1850. V his mummy family, the Cabots, Lodge traced his lineage ago to the 17th century, v one great-grandfather a leading Federalist during the Revolutionary period. Farming up in both one intellectual and privileged household, "Cabot" took naturally to scholastic subjects, particularly background and literature. Beyond his at an early stage devotion to academic pursuits, Lodge also enjoyed plenty of sports and the good outdoors; activities that would certainly later aid foster a friendship through Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919).
As was customary among upper-class new England families, Lodge attended Harvard College, graduating in 1871. After ~ marrying Anna Davis (1850-1915), daughter of navy scientist and also Naval Observatory superintendent rear Admiral Charles H. Davis (1807-1877), Lodge returned to Harvard. By 1876, at just twenty-six year old, Lodge had actually earned both law and doctoral degrees; his Ph.D. In Political scientific research was the very first ever issued to a Harvard student. End the following several years, Lodge – mentored by his former teacher Henry Adams (1838-1918), grandson and great-grandson that two former presidents – operated as assistant editor of the respected pundit quarterly phibìc American Review and also taught American background at his alma mater, publishing several publications while on the faculty.
From Professor to Politician↑
Given his intellectual and also familial background, it is no surprise that Lodge turned his attention to politics. Briefly joining through Independents, Lodge ultimately discovered a political residence within the Republican Party. His very first years in politics consisted of membership in the lower residence of the Massachusetts legislature. Serving in the secretary that the state’s delegation to the Republican nationwide Convention during the 1884 presidential contest initiated Lodge’s friendship with other Harvard graduate Theodore Roosevelt. In the election, both guys remained true to the party when plenty of deserted that is ranks as a an outcome of candidate James G. Blaine’s (1830-1893) connection to financial corruption. This decision fatefully affected both Lodge and Roosevelt. Lodge’s commitment bore fruition when he efficiently won election an initial to the residence of to represent (1886) and also then come the Senate (1892) Lodge stayed in the Senate because that the remainder the his life. Because that Roosevelt, his follow to the Republican Party in 1884 offered as a step towards the White House. In the year ahead, your partnership played an active role in shaping American international relations.
Foreign plan Advocate↑
Almost automatically upon his ascension to the Senate in 1893, Lodge prove his ability to navigate the waters that Congress, developing himself as a committed and respected – despite not always well-liked – spokesman because that both his house state and also the nation. Lodge’s specific passion focused on U.S. International policy and he began serving ~ above the Senate foreign Relations Committee in 1896. For Lodge, the timing was perfect, together his engrained feeling of superiority coupled with a romanticized notion of American destiny made him a solid believer in imperialism. Lodge mutual the ideas of his friend Roosevelt and also newly elected Republican president william McKinley (1843-1901). They construed the United says to have a special world mission and also responsibility, due to the country’s technical and economic wealth. Lodge and also his other imperialists emphasized the need for army preparedness. The senator spoke of the prominence in preserving a large and an effective navy, also as development of armed forces strategy policies about bases in the Pacific. Lodge’s fight because that such procedures proved significant, as the joined States obtained possession of many territories in between 1898-1902 and also experienced a expansion in naval power under the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
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Adversary the Woodrow Wilson↑
The grand plans concerning America’s future, meticulously promoted by Lodge and Roosevelt, seemingly shattered in 1912 through the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924). Indigenous the beginning, the Massachusetts senator had taken umbrage with the brand-new president. He had beat Roosevelt (who ran on the steady Party ticket) and also the Republican candidate. Even worse, he appeared "soft" top top U.S. Army preparedness adhering to the outbreak of the very first World battle in 1914. In advocating American involvement, Lodge condemned Germany as single instigator of the war and also called because that the unconditional surrender that the main Powers. American entry right into the war in 1917 provided further ammunition for Lodge, as he openly criticize the President’s speak to for "peace there is no victory" and the Fourteen Points peace plan.
Lodge and also the treaty Ratification Fight↑
As chairman the the Senate foreign Relations Committee, Lodge further tested Wilson end the organization of Nations and ratification the the treaty of Versailles. A defender that imperialism, Lodge did not oppose an company that would certainly support tranquility with force. His primary contention place with article X that the organization covenant, a provision Lodge believed had the potential come usurp Congress’ power to explain war. In his twelve reservations, Lodge reasserted American authority and control over its relationships with other nations. This did no reflect every Republicans, despite Lodge’s unofficial place as Senate bulk Leader. Isolationists, in staunch opposition come the war since 1914, spoke adamantly against any league, with or without reservations. Men known as "irreconcilables" additionally refused compromise, rejecting the organization outright. That Lodge capitalized ~ above such divisions is a testimony to his intellectual skill and political power.
Correctly knowledge the political folly of fully Republican opposition to a tranquility treaty, Lodge developed a scenario by which Democrats would have actually to give a treaty v Republican mandated bookings or reject it completely. In succeeding Congressional votes in between 1919-1920, Lodge’s strategy completed success; the Senate failed to ratify the contract of Versailles and Wilson’s Democrats got the blame, through the president and his party shedding in overwhelming numbers in the election of 1920.
Even together he orchestrated the League’s defeat, Lodge believed strongly in America’s right to influence people affairs. Unfettered by "entangling alliances", the joined States could move easily in asserting that is economic and political understanding abroad, uninhibited by the broken nations that Europe. Lodge’s ongoing importance in international affairs is reflect in his appointment by chairman Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) as a delegate to the Washington naval Conference in 1922. The conference brought about several eight reduction treaties while maintaining American national sovereignty and naval superiority.
Ironically, Lodge’s win over Wilson marked the end of his command of the Senate. Directly winning re-election in 1922, the elder statesman continued to be in office until his fatality in 1924.