|Chapter Study Guide Questions
As you read both the following essay and the text chapter designed to accompany it, be sure to pay special attention to the following ID and Larger Study topics. They are your guide to which topics, from this Chapter, will be covered on the 1st Section”s objective exam. These study terms and topics will be highlighted and/or repeated as they appear below. The Section objective exam be aimed at seeing how well you understand the below topics covered both in this essay and the accompanying text chapter.
ID Study Terms
Irrigation Sargon of Akkad Hammurabi”s law code The Epic of Gilgamesh Pyramids Heiroglyphics Osiris The Egyptian Book of the Dead
Larger Study Topics
Understand both similarities and differences in the geographic context of Earliest Sumerian and Egyptian civilization. In what ways were they similar and different, with what significance?
Understand the major dynamics and stages of emerging states, rulers and empires in Mesopotamia, from the era of earliest Sumerian city-states through Hammurabi”s Babylonian empire.
Understand both the basic dynamics (both continuing and evolving) of Pharaoh rule in Egypt over the Old and Middle Kingdom eras. What original powers and roles emerged why, and evolved how and why?
Although much more limited than our sources for Egypt or Mesopotamia, archeological evidence tells us a number of things about early Indus River valley civilization. What are they: physical structure of cities? Writing and metals? Trade? Fate? What kinds of things don”t we know about, that we do have some knowledge of for Egypt and Mesopotamia?
Chapter 2 Map Locations: Be sure to understand the location of all of the following geographic locations. All will be included on the Section 1 Map Exercise to be completed before the end of Section 1 work.
Tigris River Euphrates River Persian Gulf Ur (city) Babylon (city) Mediterranean Sea Nile River Sinai Peninsula Sahara Desert first cataract Nubian Desert Indus River Ganges River Area of Sind (see Harappa map below) Himalaya Mountains Hindu Kush Mountains Harappa (city) Mohenjo-daro (city)
We have now reached what has often been the beginning of traditional-style history: “historic” times, meaning those times for which we have written records. Since written records were one of the main characteristics of almost – but not quite – all early civilizations, this means we have also reached the times in which earliest civilizations emerged.
Scholars believe that complex early civilization first appeared in the Mesopotamian and Egyptian river valleys of the Middle East by about 3000 BCE, and in the Indus Valley of western India soon thereafter. Civilization is believed to have appeared first in the city states of Sumer, along the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, in the southern part of the lands we will be calling Mesopotamia. Other early civilizations then very soon crystalized along first the Nile and only a little later along the Indus. Egyptian and Indus are believed to have been very near to, but not yet fully crystallized as civilizations when very general knowledge of the fact of Sumerian developments pushed them into developing their own independent version of civilized complexities.
You are watching: All of the following cultures were mesopotamian except:
Thus Egyptian and Indus civilizations were invented independently by the peoples of those lands. Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Indus civilizations are each called a “cradle civilization” meaning it was not borrowed from anywhere else, but developed independently in its own “cradle lands.”. (As we will see in subsequent chapters, China and both MesoAmerica and Peru also developed cradle civilizations somewhat later.)
Areas occupied by the earliest independently-emerging Eastern Hemisphere civilizations
One of the things all historians find fascinating – and I hope that you will too, at least a little – is the endless game of comparing and contrasting these earliest civilizations, asking in what ways they are similar, and in what ways different.
Guideline Characteristics of Civilization Clearly all early civilizations must share some common characteristics, since they are all classified as part of the same, new catagory of “civilization.” So, what do historians mean by civilization? Let”s start by making it clear that “civilization” doesn”t mean “nice” or “good.” Most basically, the term began by referring to the ways of people in cities, which were significantly different than those of people living even in more advanced farming towns. Of course this statement sparks the natural question: in what way different? The classic answer is a list of characteristics usually true of civilizations, although several important civilizations have managed to flourish without one or more of them. Keep it in mind as a behind-the-scenes organizing list of characteristics to think about for each civilization, noticing both similarities and differences.Cities (or ritual centers): at least administrative centers drawing on the agricultural surpluses, labor, obedience of significant populations connected to the urban centers A political system based on settled territory not kinship and able to compel obedience: Both of these points are important. Civilization”s complexities seem to have needed more labor and surplus, more reliably supplied, than was likely to happen over long enough periods of time, than kinship-size groups could provide, and that people who could walk away were willing to give. Occupational specialization: reflecting sufficient agricultural surplus to support significant amounts of the population not farming, and so building specialized knowledge, inventing things, creating trade-worthy objects, etc. Class divisions/social hierarchy: some members of the population live much better than others, have higher status, can compel obedience. Be sure to think both in terms of socio-economic class and gender status. Monumental architecture: these reflect advanced engineering knowledge, elites” ability to organize huge amounts of labor, and some very organized belief system