In extr to cognatic lower (bilateral) the second major descent mechanism is unilineal. Many horticultural and also pastoral cultures (as fine as many intensive farming and many industrial societies) have some variation of unilineal descent.

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In unilineal descent, Ego traces kin either v males only, or v females only, but not through both. If the traces kin with males, descent is patrilineal, and if v females, descent is matrilineal.

Patrilineal Descent

All the cultures we room looking in ~ in this unit have actually patrilineal descent: the classic Hmong, the Yanomamo, and the Nuer. The Tiv (the horticultural culture from Unit 1) are additionally patrilineal. The majority of horticultural societies known have or have had actually patrilineal descent. In pastoral societies, patrilineal lower was virtually universal.

In any unilineal descent system, the key kin group formed is no the atom family, yet the lineage. Anyone belongs to a particular lineage, all people in the lineage are related to each other, and also lineages invariably have actually corporate functions. Lineages frequently own property and also or "use rights" to details land, which members of the lineage share in equally. There space two "rules" to remember about lineages which should make it simple for girlfriend to figure them out.

Lineages space (almost) constantly exogamous. (In a very couple of unilineal systems, the lineage is endogamous. In this class we will not be looking at any kind of examples of endogamous lineages; always assume the lineage is exogamous.) anyone in a patrilineal system takes their family tree from their father. Women take their lineage from your father, yet a woman"s kids will belonging to their husband"s lineage. Males take their family tree from your father, and a man"s youngsters will belong come his patrilineage; kinship have the right to pass "through" males, yet not "through" females.


A Patrilineage

The diagram above depicts Ego"s patrilineage in blue. Keep in mind that there are countless females in a patrilineage, and that brothers and also sisters (since they have actually the exact same father) are constantly in the very same patrilineage. Also, please note that Ego"s patrilineage go not encompass everyone ~ above Ego"s father"s side. Ego is not regarded his overcome cousin"s on his father"s side, that is, his father"s sister"s children. Over there are several consanguineal loved ones on the father"s side that space not in Ego"s lineage.

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Cross Cousin Marriage

Cross cousins, remember, room Ego"s mother"s brother"s children and father"s sister"s children. In all bifurcate merging terminology solution (e.g. Iroquois), castle are given a different kin term 보다 parallel cousins (Ego"s mother"s sister"s children and father"s brother"s children). Parallel cousins are in reality usually given the very same kin term together "brother" and "sister". If the is the case, the culture probably has desired cross cousin marriage, the is, Ego is supposed to get married a overcome cousin if at every possible. Ego"s parallel cousins space prohibited as marriage partners. This marriage pattern renders sense in a unilineal lower system. Look at the diagram below, with simple Iroquois kin terms indicated, and also Ego"s patrilineage in blue.


Iroquois ax System and also Ego"s Patrilineage

If Ego is an alleged to marry a cross cousin, he have the right to marry any type of girl labeling 8. Note that these would likewise be feasible marriage partners for his brother, if his sister might marry a male cross cousin (7). Looking in ~ the father"s side only, that is clear the the parallel cousin labeled "6" is in Ego"s patrilineage (and hence has actually the duty of a sister), when the overcome cousin labeling "8" is not in Ego"s patrilineage. Due to the fact that lineages are constantly exogamous, this marriage pattern is logical. Overcome cousins, will never ever be Ego"s lineage. However, typically (look at top diagram), the parallel cousins ~ above the mother"s side will certainly not it is in in Ego"s family tree either. However, if cross cousin marriage is preferred, that is extremely likely that Ego"s mother and father space cross cousins. If so, Ego"s mother"s sister and also Ego"s father"s brothers are likewise cross cousins. In any kind of event, Ego"s mother"s sister may well have married who in Ego"s father"s lineage. If so, then Ego"s mother"s sister"s youngsters (his parallel cousins) will likewise be in his lineage, and marriage would certainly be prohibited! also if Ego"s father"s sisters is married come Ego"s mother"s brothers (since they are likewise cross cousins), their children, Ego"s cross cousins, will not it is in in his lineage, and he is totally free to marry them! (You are welcome to try to diagram this because that yourself!)